雅思阅读考试,每一个段落都是有特定的段落功能存在,在整篇文章结构中扮演不同的角色,而对雅思阅读段落功能进行分析,能在整体的角度上帮助解题,下面就是雅思阅读中比较和对比段落的实例讲解。

  Contrast & Comparison型段落

  比较和对比型段落多用于说明性文章。

  它的特点是通过对两个或更多的对象进行比较或对照,陈述它们的异同,对于论述对象的描述有的“平起平坐”,有的则有所侧重。

  对比、比较类段落的布局大致有三种:

  第一类是先比较,后结论;

  第二类是先主题句子,再比较,后结论;

  第三类是先结论,后比较。

  Example 1:(先比较,后结论)

  The pure or theoretical scientist does original research in order to understand the basic laws of nature that govern our world. The applied scientist adapts this knowledge to practical problems. Neither is more important than the other, however, for the two groups are very much related.

  首先,分别介绍理论科学家和应用科学家的不同工作领域,然后,指出他们是同等重要、相互依存。所以此段基本属于“平起平坐”一类。

  Example 2:(先主题句子,再比较,后结论)

  At the University of Kansas art museum, investigators tested the effects of different colored walls on two groups of visitors to an exhibit of paintings. For the first group, the room was painted white, for the second, dark brown. The experiment revealed that those who entered the dark brown room walked more quickly,covered more area, and spent less time in the room than the people in the white environment. Dark brown stimulated more activity, but the activity ended sooner.

  这一段便属于“有所侧重”的一类。

  作者指出实验在白、棕两种颜色的房间进行,但大多笔墨都用于描述深棕色房间对于人们刺激而带来多动行为的事实,并在说明中采用了一些含比较级的句子,这样白房间里的实验结论便不言而喻了。

  Example 3:(先结论,后比较)

  Colors do influence our moods; there is no doubt about it. A yellow room makes most people feel more cheerful and more relaxed than a dark green one; and a red dress brings warmth and cheer to the saddest winter day. On the other hand, black is depressing…

  值得一提的是在比较、对比型段落中还有一种特殊的类型。

  当作者试图介绍一个抽象的概念或不为人们熟悉的事物时,他往往是借助比喻或类比的方法,引入另一个具体的概念或人们所熟知的具体事物,然后进行比较。

  但这种比较或对比是有所侧重的,其最终目的是比较两种事物的异同点,把复杂抽象的概念通俗化、具体化。

  Example 4:

  When light encounters a cloud of small particles, it is diffused.This may be illustrated by a familiar example. When sunlight enters a darkened room through a gap in the blinds, it will appear as a brilliant ray of light. This is because there are tiny particles of dust suspended in the air. These, although normally invisible, catch and diffuse and strong light shining on them.Thus we can see that diffusion occurs owing to all sorts of impurities in the atmosphere. This explains all the delightfully varied shades of color seen at different times of the day.

  文章先提出光的漫射现象,然后用阳光穿透缝隙射进暗室的现象进行对比说明。

  前者是人们不熟悉的事物;后者是日常生活中常见的。

  如此比较便使得文章生动形象,通俗易懂了。

  此外,我们可以通过抓关键词的方法来识别文章中的比较和对比型段落。

  在阐发比较对象的相同点时,same,like,similar,likewise,equal,identical这样的词语用得较多。

  而阐发相异之处时,则多用but,however,yet,nevertheless,whereas,although,despite,in spite of,even if,in contrast,by contrast,compared with,on the contrary 等。

  Tips:

  在Example 1中的“one …,the other …”,Example 2中的“for the first,… for the second, ….”和Example 3的“on the other hand”这些词汇也都是些较常用的比较、对比指示词。

  另外,在Example 2中还使用了形容词和副词的比较级,这也是比较、对比型段落中常常使用的语言形式。

Contrast真题实战

  关于女权运动的一个选择题:

  Why was the WSPU more successful than other suffrage groups?

  A.Its leaders were much better educated.

  B.It received funding from movements abroad.

  C.It had access to new technology.

  D.It had a clear purpose and direction.

  这道题也曾是难倒无数英雄的一个题目,主要是因为不好定位,如果我们用WSPU或者suffrage groups作为定位词,那就大错特错了,因为它是一个典型的高频词汇,那么,我们拿more successful作为定位词,很抱歉,压根没有这样的词,或者类似的表述,那怎么办,选项定位,排除法,发现又很耗时,总之,各种打击。

  其实,只要抓住题干里的比较关系,答案就会主动前来报到了,从第一题之后,我们看到的第一个比较逻辑关系就是下面这句话:

  Membership grew rapidly as women deserted the many other, less directed groups and joined it.

 

  其实,它们的差异就是和direct有关系,即使你不是非常理解这个句子,那么,你也应该知道这个词和选项D的direction是同根词,答案就不言而喻了。

  

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